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So, what exactly is style? We often talk about the lifestyle of styles in music, style of speech and communication style. What is the architectural style? First, let us define. Style is a combination of sustained artistic forms. Style is a derivative era. How many times, and many styles.
Style can combine different things : houses, furniture, crockery, paintings and even clothing. First, it dictates the style of their form, shape, color, motives. In other words, the style of doing things for what they are.
The style is a very important value, but the individual, the unique features of your home will not so much style as an architect. And, of course, not without your participation. Do you like more than one style and you do not know what kind of them to choose or build upon? No problem. A good architect can show you how the idea can be implemented in your house each.
To facilitate your conversation with the architects, we suggest you learn the basic styles that mankind has developed over the years, and who now can use you. We describe the styles that somehow influenced modern architecture and still find it reflected.
The architectural styles
But one only Greeks come to play a decisive role in the development of architectural styles subsequent eras. Only their heritage left in the century and evolved to this day. Sometimes it is overlooked, sometimes it resolutely refused, but it rose again and again from the wilderness. What attracted, as so attracted to a Greek art? Elegance and grace of, well, and turn all the details, poise and calm grandeur. Yet, constructive simplicity.
Greeks, gave the world the beginning of many sciences, and the first to develop a coherent theory of architecture. They have put in practice they have never violated the law of symmetry. Subsequently, in Europe it will be unaffected reason classicism
The rhetoric of Greek culture was such that Rome, Athens has taken, the situation has been won. But in the architecture of the Romans did not copy the Greeks, but mimic them. And how the Greeks were fine artists, so the Romans were practical builders. They create architecture, which in its scope and magnitude was huge demonstration of the strength of the empire, its symbol.
Rome enforces its culture among its conquered peoples, regardless of their specific national characteristics. But empires crumble, and they built a monument and an example to follow. Rome fell under the blows of the destroyers, his property on Byzantium… ended an era - an era of antiquity. But the ancient art of centuries later, has yet to rise during the Renaissance, to forever remain in history and the practice of mankind. Stuttgart, Ionic and Corinthian style you can now see in many buildings, and not just in Europe. If you drew antiques, classics, bring them into our own.
Now, let shagnem with you in the next stage of European-Middle Ages. Many people, it seems somewhat grim and frightening. But he gave the world a wonderful Gothic-style.
Inside the church was ozareno multicolored lights and stained-glass windows, creating a special, mysterious, but unusually joyful atmosphere. All this has had a strong emotional impact on people, and urged him to aspire to a higher fine.
We now turn to the next (post-Renaissance antiquity) telling style, left a significant imprint on the history of mankind-Baroque. Intricate expressiveness and external efficacy have primacy over other baroque styles of European culture for more than a century, since the end of the XVI century. until the middle of XVIII. This style typical of a luxury paradnost, ornamental, the desire for glory and splendor, it is that makes a strong impression on people, struck his imagination.
The architecture facades almost disappear horizontal straight lines, are gently curved, smooth. Buildings seem like aluminium from one giant piece of stone and vyleplennymi rather than built. Deepening gracefully moving in the points and give the impression of one continuous, and it is tougher volnuyuscheysya estate. The effect of increasing abundance of decorative elements, performed with great fiction and imagination. All of this is remarkable scenic and as a dynamic and fits into the surroundings.
Baroque buildings that we can behold today is the ancient palaces, which have the most museums. The Baroque is now almost no one is not built. But if you like this style, if you want to emulate the aristocracy of past centuries, and if you live a soft life, which is alien to lack of time, the Baroque can be your friend. Your house will dikovinoy and without any doubt will affect both its visitors and passers-by.
Time dragged on, and gradually Baroque weary humanity. After celebrating a century and fussy there is a need for something more modest, simple. The baroque classics came, which in the second half of XVIII century has completely dominated. Significant developments science and industry. In Europe, formed powerful empire. The order of severity, a sense of balance, poise classicism more suitable for public affairs and better understand all sectors of society, rather than preaching sensuous and unbridled passion Baroque.
Architecture classicism as a whole has a reasonable logic and rational layout geometry of the three-dimensional shape. Classicism is a legacy of ancient architecture, creative suffer and applies the laws, especially the law of symmetry. But the best architects quote classicism rather than copy antiquity.
Over time classics turned into academic skill is influenced not only of the architect, but on the employer. Classicism gradually turns into a church, which became final phase of its existence. The complexity and heavy form style, as well as new directions in architecture led in the end to the classics off the pedestal. But he will return in the second half of XX century, will be tapped and creatively, being included in contemporary art, will again irresistible to a large part of humanity.
Mary prevailed in architecture (and the arts in general) in the first three decades of XIX century. It was the last stage of the evolution of classicism in European history. Influenced by the imperial spirit of classicism changed the elegant simplicity of form at the giant expressiveness.
Like the classics, church focuses on the ancient art pieces. But it takes only a few of its features of the imperial ambitions of Rome, who needed a good illustration of its power. The main elements of style : a monument, robust ports, the military emblems in designing facades and interiors : military armour, laurel wreaths, Eagles. Reflecting Egyptian hikes Napoleon and the opening of ancient Egyptian culture, style include in its arsenal keeping her motivation : massive amounts of geometry, Egyptian carvings, stylized cats.
Mary is not only the architecture. The style paintings executed ceilings and walls, dishes, furniture and other items.
At the church in the XIX century and there is romanticism. He also had a huge influence on the development of modern architecture. This style is a denial grandiozno-totalitarnogo style. Poetiziruet pupils folk architecture and art form the past. He has a charm gray antiquities, verdant pastures, spicy exotic.
Pupils are close in spirit to all the well-known current style "Country", with its glorification of national life, artificial coffers, wicker furniture and other charmingly old environmental overtones.
But perhaps the most romantic - that is, historically accurate - Romanticism himself in a particular type of garden ensembles. Typical for him is the disappearance of boundaries between nature and artifice installed, designed the park. The park arranged artificial ponds, waterfalls, grottos, which seems natural, existing here since time immemorial. For romanticism has always been characterized by the diversity of forms and creative freedom. Of course, that was an adequate response to the severe style uniformity.
Since the mid-XIX century seen new trends in architecture. It is becoming more independent of the generally accepted norms and rules of Vilhelms with its rigid principle to build the only way, and in no other way. This phenomenon is possible because in society, a host of the haves. They were not associated with the highest aristocratic society, with its Mannerism and stereotypes. They customers homes in the most incredible, it is often difficult opisuemyh styles. It was a protest against the aristocracy.
Modern life has a new building design-from the inside out, which was fundamental in the whole architecture of XX century. Since then, the main criterion is good. It is good functionality now defines interior solutions buildings. The house has to be convenient for people, with its lifestyle, hobby, work, leisure.
Early Modernism was almost absolute denial of many, if not all classical principles of the buildings. A characteristic of early modernism is the rejection of straight lines and curves in a more natural, smooth traffic curved lines. This style was very strong and robust objects visible fragility and air easily.
Wizards modernist revived and became widely used type of dressing, which were already poluzabyty : sculpture, mosaics, ceramics, mural and stained glass.
First in line, modern architectural movement to be placed functionalism (in Soviet Russia, he was known as a constructive). He emerged in the early 1920s and became attracted to the architects around the world. They agreed to implement the following principle : the aesthetic quality of art should be entirely subordinate to a man.
Functionalism spread like a modern subject to the entire world for furniture, clothing and even books schedule. He announced he was modern architecture fatal disease, and denied any creative heritage of past eras. But it was a noble goal : to improve the city and improve the lives of people through the development of science and technology. Functionalism democratic, at low cost and to make more housing for the same money. "
Functionalism places people at the centre of the design process. However, not a specific person, and people in general, as a biological and social beings. A feature of the buildings must first determine the physiological and social needs of people. Architects design of this house in such a way as to ensure the necessary conditions for people to feel at home (or work).
Aesthetic considerations are functionalist limit simplified forms, no decoration and the desire for minimal surface treatment. Very low functionalism applies to the introduction of color in architecture.
Functionalism is a movement to minimize literally everything that surrounds people from the facade to the interior and fashion. Proponents of functionalism was a romantic, simple, useful and free of the legacy of the past. But, alas, rejecting mandatory regulation of classical architectural forms, functionalism comes to a very uniform own artistic form. And this prescription forms to (rather imposed) in all cases, regardless of diagnosis. The circle is closed, and funktsionalisty into the same trap, which initially had escaped.
Brutalizm and Hay-Tek
In the 1950s, England started another modern architecture-brutalizm (NAK. 'Brutal' - gross). In his works brutalisty want to expose design, which built to maximize detection deliberately simple architectural mass grave.
A very common style of recent decades XX century was equipped (high-tech). This style of high technology, an opposition brutalizma. Brutalizm can reliably identify lou-tekom (Low), stylization low technology. Unlike them, India is groomed, secured and Garcinia. He primarily associated with lots of glass, combined with the metal structures. The architectural integrity of buildings equipped to include elements of engineering equipment : air ducts, shafts.
Images hay-tekovskogo building is "technological" through the use of various accessories. Loved this style metal-aluminum. The interiors often use it in combination with wood.
Today, the architectural environment dominated pluralism of ideas and opinions. None of the areas of architecture was not a priority, no concept is built on a pedestal as true. The development of such attitudes contributed to the movement Stage. His philosophy was based on the facilities that focus on art provokes absolute reproduction of the totalitarian mind of Rights and totalitarian structures in society, and therefore could not be used.
Architectural Postmodernism reviving historical buildings principles of composition (symmetry, perspective, proportionality), uses elements of all styles, applying principles of high Eclecticism. Moreover, postmodernism is virtually free of any decorations. Copying itself is simply deleted. Several styles can be compiled and infiltrate into each other, forming a wonderful and unique buildings.
В результате кропотливых и увлекательных размышлений над функциональной и художественной стороной вашего будущего дома вы должны сформировать задание архитектору. Чем больше подробностей и деталей своего замысла вы передадите архитектору, тем лучше, точнее и быстрее он сможет воплотить его. Любой архитектор будет очень рад тому, что вы пришли идейно подготовленным и не с пустыми руками. Может быть, вам даже удастся достичь более благоприятных для себя финансовых условий – благодаря тому, что вы говорите на одном языке, и архитектор затратит меньше времени на выполнение вашего проекта.
Автор: Кадрина Айситулина