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Furniture from the past

Мебель из прошлого

Nearly all known types of furniture-table, chair, chair, bench, cabinet (original-chest), already existed in ancient times. Thus, the ancient Egyptians and residents of Mesopotamia able to make furniture from wood, cane, palm leaves, tendons and skin of animals, Pobun its precious metals, ceramic and glass. Ancient Civilization (ancient Greece and Rome) picked up the torch, creating many beautiful pieces of furniture practical and convenient. Incidentally, there is Greco-Roman art has powerful impetus to the European Renaissance era furniture traditions and classicism. It is known that ancient artists were able to combine excellent creatures in their simplicity, finesse, elegance and comfort lines. They have an idea of processing various kinds of furniture (especially ornamentation "meander"), or animal figures grifonov leg. After many hundreds of years, Europeans have borrowed most of these objects, largely pereosmysliv and bringing them to its logical conclusion.

Collect old furniture interesting and prestigious. However, people who chooses to deal with this truly elitist affair, will be faced with numerous challenges. First, a collection of antique furniture are stored in a large room, where a special microclimate (not tolerate excessive moisture, but dry air can not go Kyle benefit). Still, with the funds to buy furniture, most likely there will be money for equipment and related komnaty-muzeya. Additional costs normally required restoration. It can only go to these professionals who are not spoil valuable exhibit. And these people will have to look for them.

But the main problem is that distinguish genuine antique furniture from quality forgery are very difficult. To do not buy not representing any value plagiarism, it is necessary to carefully examine the various aspects of antique furniture, its forms, decoration materials, technology development, especially styles, etc. Fortunately, no shortage of colourful albomah-spravochnikah today - they can not buy in any major bookstore.

Indeed, falsifikatorskoe art has now reached quite a lot. Typically, forgery manufactured from relatively cheap materials that layman can take for the noble class tree. For example, black tree ably replaced strawberry or apple, continuous special products (sulfate, chloride), and instead use the walnut tree, alder or lime processed aniline. In short, a great many tricks here.

To mislead the not too fussy collector falsifiers often imitate wood fruit and fired a shot or had initially using muted Life rocks. Sometimes furniture collected from old Sundukov, making no one your biggest in the beautiful old wardrobe. But there are no historical value of such "art" of course not.

However, in some cases, identify possible forgery. In modern copies, as a rule, no wooden nails, mechanical damage upon careful examination seem forcibly caused, polishing will be hard to shine or greenish tint. If Monogram (Crazy or cut) is a conspicuous place, a good sign that you forgery. At a later origin furniture show, for example, the piece gently back and too smooth inner surface, the new locks, more pridelannye decorations, which, according directories should not be, etc.

Incidentally, the art antique market sometimes appear more valuable and forgery. It turns out that interest in antique furniture has emerged in Russia and Europe have in the second half of XIX century. And because many collectors demand could not be fully satisfied with this antique shops started to produce some very good forgery. There is evidence that the big artists and carpenters involved in such fraud existed in Paris, Venice, St. Petersburg and other cultural centers of the time. Of course, today the level of counterfeiting is often valued equally with the real work of art.

So, let's enterprising Fabricators failed to circle around your finger, and forgery is not purchased. But where to find this Kyle? Unfortunately, from ancient times and medieval era original furniture until we hear little (individual copies are stored in the world-famous museums, but to try to get this exhibit home virtually useless). The vast majority of the furniture of modern times also meet the sad fate. Typically, they died during revolutions, wars, fires and floods, along with homes, but that miraculously survived long occupied a place in the museum halls of the world. In addition, active in the home furnishings and iznashivalas rapidly losing its original appeal. Then remove it in the closet or burned, immediately searching it a decent replacement. Indeed, many beautiful and precious things that adorn palaces, offices or heroes, such as monasteries, not only worn, but with time going out of fashion, they came later in peasant homes (known as excellent wedding coffers people held oats or equipment).

Experience shows that most collectors focus primarily on the Russian furniture XVIII - XIX centuries. First, if a try, the product of that period can still be found in some antique stores or from private sellers (with more ancient things that is difficult). Secondly, the domestic furniture is a great historical interest.

Russian art furniture, as, in the long run, art borrowed for a short period (apprenticeship has been only a few decades) to the European level. Based on the best pieces of our foreign masters learned to create a truly Russian masterpieces.

Until the first half of XVIII century in the making of furniture in Russia approached from a purely utilitarian, practical positions. No wonder that at the time were different tradition (in the worst sense of the word) and form a monoculture. Suffice was scarce and recruitment materials used in its manufacture. The situation changed with the reign of Peter the Great. Rapid growth in Northern capital, the building of urban palaces and the homes of the nobility contributed to the demand for new furniture European model, but one which initially lacked disastrously (bulk purchases abroad could not solve the problem). Then Peter Alexeyevich decided to send a crew of its agents that the "Barker" in Russia masters of various specialities, promising them numerous orders and a good income. According to the contracts, foreign furniture should not only produce high quality and beautiful furniture, but also teach their art to be against them for Russian students.

Learning European furniture tradition, the Russian-yourselfers have tried to adapt them to suit Russian realities. For example, the production of furniture foreign preference English, Dutch and German-good, solid and inexpensively decorative way. Maintenance and back seats often ukrashalis threads in a large zavitkov reminiscent of his appearance petushinye ridges (purely national dimension).

In the second half of the century XVIII and XIX century Russian art furniture to these heights.

A good example of the second half of the furniture is the XVIII century gilt chairs president Military Division of glory himself G. A. Potemkin. Around the central switchboard, padded velvets, combined helmet places Hercules, a sword and a bow with arrows, a complete set of ancient motivation, so popular among klassitsistov.

The transition from the ornate Baroque forms that prevailed in the first half of XVIII century, the blunt features of the classical era fully completed in Russia only by the 1980s XVIII century. By this time, finally approved and classical ornaments. Typically, a set of ornaments included a geometric mesh, fashion, as well as carvings of the flower wreath. Sometimes you can see images of architectural landscape, or even mnogofigurnye compositions.

To finish cabinet furniture often used equipment Marquetry (from the French. "Marqueterie" - a mosaic of curly plates of various colors and textures, which nakleivalis a wooden furniture). In this manner, met with the Bureau of cylindrical lids, cabinets 2001a. The manufacture of metal furniture also used to give her a more sophisticated form.

In XIX century Russian furniture from a late classicism to modernism, but since the 1940s, various styles of furniture often coexist even in the same Palace (so popular nowadays Eclecticism, that is a mixture of styles).

The first decade of XIX century was marked by the fact that the trends that have emerged in the second half of XVIII century, have been further developed. This time, late classicism, which clearly expressed, such as furniture, created by project architect A.N. Voronihina. But already the Russian furniture 1920s and began manufacturing in the form style (from FF. "Empire" - empire style in the art of Napoleonic France, served up the idea of public power and is characterized by monumental lapidarnymi forms). This style reflects the mood of the era well, nastavshey after the victory over Napoleon Russia. Widely spread at that time furniture rectilinear forms of mahogany with copper trailers (she was named Jacob-style on behalf of a well-known master Jacob Demalte).

In short, kollektsioniruya furniture, not just people trying to recreate at home magnificent interiors past, if he becomes an accomplice of the events that occurred many years ago. An old furniture store in a spirit of the past is much better than many other antiquities. This is perhaps the main feature of it.

Author : Alexei Rezenkov
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