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The desire and opportunity to develop modern man, improved his house naturally. A natural feel and the interior affairs of production and not bearing signs of uniqueness and exclusivity. Meanwhile, the collapse of class monopoly on ornate happened just over a century ago. The first style, which has been copied, and thus became accessible not only very rich people who can rightfully be bidermayer. Last blind arrogance and demeaning supporters clean style, a lack of specialists and ill treatment of users, he defended the right of existence of zeros in estimeyte auction sales and market demand.

Upon entering any of the antique store, you will notice the furniture of mahogany with smooth polished surface, beautiful textured wood figure, rounded shape, decorated with romantic elements of decoration-Lira, swans, dolphins. Your mind stops at the picturesque pictures, footage of domestic scenes or romantic story - the tomb of the poet, a castle, which beads or silk hair. Warm comfort and pride of these things, in contrast to the solemnity and paradnosti typical instance, the subjects performed in the classical or contemporary haytekovskom style. This is a feature paintings, as originally conceived his belongings to create a mood in which the right to privacy, privacy is in the public domain and, in particular, has become a way of life.

In the modern history of the word "literature" bidermayer meant as a design style accommodation, and way of life, mostly in Germany and Austria in the period between the end of Napoleon's wars and the revolution in 1848. In Russia, as is customary to link names with the style of governance of the Emperor, bidermayer as Nicholas (most pronounced in the imperial garden dvortse-kottedzhe in Peterhof); This style is also defined as the latest style or style Ivanov time. The term "bidermayer a" two words : "Beederman", which means "Good" and "Meyer" - German common name that once meant "Good" Mr. Mayer. In 1848, German poet Joseph von Sheffel published two poems : "Evening comfortable stay bidermana Setovaniya" and "idle" Mayer. In 1850, German poet and his friend Eichrodt Kuzmaul were published under the pseudonym Bidermayer works parodying one amateur poetry S. Zautera, provincial schoolteacher. In 1869 a special edition of "Komicheskih songs Bidermayera". And the title, and the hero Ayhrodta were surrounded tastes and interests of his own words, introducing sample "modest Bidermayera, which satisfied his Raduyev, polisadnichkom and lives in a place God forgot, umudryalsya found in the plight of rural teachers simply innocent joy around happiness".

This style was characterized by the phenomenon, not only for Citizens Germany. In France at the time, the trend has created Lafontena in Russia, Krylov and Fonvizina, resulting in the most creative Kozmy Prutkova whose image appeared, seemingly following the Bidermaeyrom. The name Bidermayera was incorporated, it marked not only a hero, but to the artistic taste that has been the hallmark of this phenomenon. Gradually, it was postponed at the very aesthetic principle of the melkoburzhuaznogo or middle class. The history of the term "bidermayer" was first reflected in the work of G. Gettihera "Future pottery ..." in 1894 and "About Schmidt P. painting Bidermayera" in 1922. Salient features of heroes Ayhrodta - amateurism, provincialism, irony, Shōjo-led phenomenon subsequently consolidated under the name "bidermayer".

Shōjo - perhaps the most significant features of the paintings. Empire style supreme power, occupy themselves most in Napoleonic France, heir to the royal absolutism, and in autocratic Russia, is clearly concerned, stylistic, zakonchennostyu, and the ideal of purity. Bidermayer characteristic of melkoburzhuaznoy, abodes of Germany, Austria, Russia-oriented tastes yard podrazhatelen in itself. The bidermayer that is geared more to individual taste than unity abstract form and content of high style, it is difficult to separate from the church, in the shadow of which he was backed by a shadow. This entire range of paintings : from durnovkusiya in the classical (style oposhlenny townsmen) perfect lines and forms of classicism, the style used as a private family life abodes.

Bidermayer generally provintsialen. Instead of celebrating their lips and greatness metropolitan-style idea of simplicity, practicality, comfort and convenience. Heilig details and art, and literature, as in life, and descriptive fiziologizm, each breeze, a sign of something, but not a character humor, but not Humor, sentimental sympathy without much sacrifice, but not compassion through dedication, the fact that the himself and his family. Incidentally, family portraits, often in the interior, which is produced by work, a certain genre, leading to the spread of photographs in the second half of XIX century.

However, the merger affects bidermayere life, domestic life and world wide range of people, forming a middle class, are claiming their right to life and power in it. In this environment a custom to keep the so-called clean room, equipped with special care and taste employee to receive guests and demonstrate good taste masters. A room filled somewhat naïve souvenirs and decorations, navels, hours, embroidery, handicrafts mistress and daughters, beads, miniature and watercolor on the walls, flowers in the windows, that art has become a large indoor garden, attaching furniture of mahogany wood or light shade (extending, by the way, limited space), pears, maple, cherry, nut with a thin padding in small tsvetochek or striped nests.

It is in this environment emerged basic principles of privacy match, his ideas and way of life, including a range of things and habits that surround us today. Since then they have only modified but not changed. It happened in the era paintings of self and self-determination of new people with new ideas holders. Then, after passing through an era of cultural getaway as a time finding a person who is the same in essence came to the modern culture, with its varied forms, and finally to create meaningful forms captive it still is.

In Russia between the end of the war with Napoleon and the Crimean war there similar phenomenon. This so-called Ivanov time hero who was a little man, of Eugene "Copper rider" to the heroes Gogolya, Dostoyevsky, and the era of the reign of Nicholas. The Russian soil this trend has national characteristics, but all this happened in Russia of the same townsmen in his particular tastes and welfare, and therefore follow, and even the fashion for German. Look at our raznochintsev, with a lot of life, requiring small furniture-tables, sekretery, byurtso, soft and comfortable furniture, etazherochki, cabinets, stands for flowers, vitrinki and so on and so forth. The paintings and graphics, as well as the literature shows these interiors, domestic scenes, family portraits, rural landscapes in romantiko-sentimentalnom spirit.

In short, and in Russia, we have seen the development of the same principles of privacy, with their bourgeois moderate, and the savings sought by both the royal house, and the other class.

Sitting in the tragic era of communist construction, imbued with the ideals of heroism, among other things, we have lost joy of privacy. Fortunately, the tragedy behind us, and the attraction to privacy, sentimentality, kamernosti, poetizatsii peace items of property, comfort and comfort can be satisfied in full. And as a symbol of newfound right to a private life in our interior can be gizmos paintings.

Author : Alexei Sokolov
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