Some furniture design trends
The future has started
'S XX century, gunfire obtain its historic definition to the industrial era, and naturally there is the name of the next era of post, information. The rationalization XX century to the fore of the functionality of furniture and its mass circulation. But as opposed to kinetic expression and the end of XX century, the trend in demand for exclusive furniture, personal dizayn-produkt. That is the trend marked the start of the post-industrial era. Traction customization living environment is not just an outside party, or purely aesthetic, and the desired characteristics of interior, but due to the underlying demand for individual comfort and therefore causes attractive "disappearing" and adjustable furniture.
History convertible furniture has dozens of centuries, and over the centuries there have targets and priorities in its development, including not only good reason, but also, at first glance excessive, irrational arguments as entertainment functional change furniture or raising its profile as a prestigious subject dear, Holy special comfort. In XIX century, the task of convertible furniture is a very topical issue. The predictive development XX century convertible furniture had a leading role, and the coming XXI century offers no conceivable above the needs and opportunities dizayn-razrabotki production and convertible furniture. But almost always, since XIX century, the development of convertible furniture is a reasonable idea of living space.
It is seen as the traditional consumer culture XIX century, the problems of domestic comfort. Accommodation, for example, state workers in a separate villa not be difficult, but a very limited range of raspolagavshy to have a special comfort and live in a separate house. When the XIX century is a tendency towards democracy and basic household items, such as widespread urban housing is paid in income apartment buildings, the comfort is often resolved with the help of convertible furniture. Instead guest rooms, which were Charlie, a lounge in wage apartments stand sleeping in sofas, transformable into bed. On the eve of XIX and XX centuries, tailored then fashionable Modernist style, such sofas may be in the form of add-ons shelves and side tables, allowing for all the comforts of notions of the time. But the problem is particularly biased comfort developed in transformable beds in a closet, which could provide storage not only bedding, but washroom equipment and all things for a morning shower.
Reserve bed for workers to a kitchen stola-krovati which took the form of the cabinet, where bed remove three collapse. Advertising stresses that furniture is easy transformation from the spring mechanism, making it clear that it can cope with a child that appear on the accompanying illustrations in the catalogue of German products patented furniture factory.
The "patent boom" XIX century, curious attempts to create a sort of furniture that provides comfort, which could be called mebel-nesesser and which could perhaps be considered a prototype and the beginning of today the direction furniture design, which is dubbed "mebel-konteyner" is a compact and "packaged" devices performing various functions furniture after simple transformation. Among those inventions are patented in the United States in 1864 combined tour (or "camping") sunduk-shezlong. In the proposal stated : "This invention is for officers and soldiers. The aim of the project is to combine a compact, easily transported generally most needed little more life. Figure Fig. 2 shows its disclosed for use. The A is for a box of papers and clothes. The box, it is busy cooking utensils for cooking and eating, and a small army tiles. On top is convertible structure, which can be used as a chair, or Lounge, or bed. can be installed in the plane table for a meal or a letter. Together, in assembled form occupies an area the size of 2 feet by 2 feet 4 inches (ie 60.96 x71, 12 cm). Drawing and description of the subject are well-known design theorist Siegfried Gidionom in the monograph, on the development of mechanization and modern culture.
It is not clear what the practical application of the invention was at the time, but it took place alongside design and development of a combined convertible and furniture. More than a century later, was reflected in dizayn-razrabotke tentatively entitled "Seats sculptor, and the proposed Eduardo Luigi Paolotstsi London firms Aram-Dizayns in 1986
On the same invention applications XIX century is a master line predictive development, which, in the 1960s the city XX century the name "mebel-konteyner." This part of the conceptual design of furniture aimed at transforming the lives of a changing environment. And initially did not even claim to Pilot proposals in the mass production of furniture, although it is clear that many of them are gradually becoming irrelevant.
Anticipation demand dynamic mebeli-transformera inherent most prominent architects and designers to design furniture and living environment as a whole. Enjoying a multifunctional furniture units particularly true for artists seeking funktsionalistov Messrs. 1920s. XX century. Among the personalities architectural vanguard of the period Eileen Gray stands out as a prognozist-futurolog, since it opened several promising new formation furniture, but at that time had not yet been developed technology for the manufacturing of furniture items. Therefore, I have an industrial design furniture industrialism, it is the exclusive things made by hand. Among them are multifunctional units and convertible furniture. A number of small furniture-oriented special comfort, was replicated in our times as expensive prestige thing, not only lost relevance, but is now perceived as avant-garde dizayn-produkt. This variable height coffee tables, easily transportable table glass and metal rolling device functional components, wall mirror with hidden volume for toiletries and other belongings in the same spirit refined cleanliness, order and comfort residential interior. All these objects were once manufactured and the only copies were for their own villas Eileen Gray, based on her project, which looked like a white ship, which is extravagant name "E 1027", which encrypted circumstances of her life. For the same villa construction project owner convertible Lounge, its version of the car seat and rest. " More widely known shezlong-kachalka Le Corbusier, created in the same year (1929) and reflects the same concept, but a more avant-garde forms and materials and successfully replicable at the end of XX century. To change the posture of rest in the form of a pier changes manually, which is very simple and very reliable. Indeed, when some in the middle of XX century began to build electric motors in this furniture to modify profile floor, leaving one with him, the idea of such mechanization is not yet a practical because of possible failures and failures in the arrangements. Here it is appropriate to recall a "standstill evolution in the mechanization of furniture, such as sofa bed with a pedal which, when clicked, it is literally" vystrelival "bed and grief to those who zazevalsya in its path. Generally, in the case of furniture mechanization of security is the key issue. Nevertheless, experiments on integration in the furniture mechanical, electrical and pneumatic machine continues to XXI century emerged direction of the online sites where synergies object and subject of a bilateral nature. Developments in this direction is not too much, but have already drawn the attention of Italian designer interactive Denis Santakyary-good, ironic, usluzhlivye, voskreshayuschie memory "silent servants", the dream mebelschiki-mehaniki eighteenth century.
Some sites developed Santakyaroy, very simple, but attractive built-in to be helpful. Apparently hangers with the device for easy-not nagibayas-cleaning shoes or mouse pad for the feet, which is based on the thin reed-moving bird, chirping in charge thanks for what you vyterli legs. The irony, on the verge of jokes, objects hidden promising design XXI century, which is capable of a new level to tackle the serious problem of habitat.
Turning to the experience of XX century, it must be noted that, between the 1960s and Messrs. marked integrated conceptual projects "Viziona" and "Shelter-80. Series "Viziona" opened in 1969, the project layout future housing D. Colombo. The 1970 has been "Viziona W. Pantona-sort of residential landscape. Next "Viziona" in 1972-designer O. Murga -otrazhala fascination with the Japanese explanation interior combined with the European avant-garde. "The home-80 exhibited in the 1971 All these prognostic a combined one idea is a great space in which alternately deployed right at this moment functional device.
Exhibition of Italian design in 1972 in New York introduced a new understanding of the concept of home, reflecting the views of the leaders of Italian design not only housing but not for the future of humanity. The New York exhibit designer E. Sottsass proposed container of mobile equipment home, but not in the aspect of work in practice, but as a conceptual proposal. Building on the idea of "mebel-konteyner" materializes predictive concepts invariably takes the form of mobile units to close "packaged" functional devices, which can be deployed anywhere in the living space with a flexible layout, and then removed to special niches in the walls or cabinets. Among these "containers" - highly hybrids furniture and electronic audio-visual equipment. This is one of the futures concepts aimed at the establishment of the so-called "disappearing" of furniture, available only at the time of need and frees space for the deployment of mobile equipment funkzony another. The most visible expression of the forecast trend was one of the greatest innovators in the field of experimental design Italian designer Joe Colombo (1930-1971). It is even briefly to his innovative projects furniture and living environment as a whole, are further developed in the development of other designers. But take just one example, he invented a universal container for residential teenager. The level of conceptual projects that develop quickly turned into a virtually sold, making production and popular among consumers. In general terms, this compact volume in the form of features, covering an area equal in size bed, which is elevated slightly above normal, to manage the space underneath for easy storage virtually the whole of things, including a small desk and chair to study it. Used principle "matreshki-chair compact lens under the table, and he in turn under the bed, which is still room for considerable amount of storage items, including clothing, linens, books, small items of sports equipment, etc. The manipulation of this machine not least the child of a kind game. The Colombo had provided the impetus to the development of a number of modifications, and in some countries, such as Japan, where particularly appreciated the opportunity to save space, mebel-konteyner for children and adolescents are serially for decades. Now, some small domestic production offer such consumer harvesters.
In recent decades there has been a trend XX century conceptual and experimental development of a "self home" by turning totally tehnizirovannogo "zhilischa-mehanizma" in "zhilische-organizm" with the characteristic properties of adaptation. Some foreign funded firms prognostic studies habitat, based on the inevitability of a quantum leap in consumer culture XXI century. Developed this theme in the recent past and Research conducted in domestic institutions. Prognostic a living environment and provide furniture and inevitably lead to a practical result of project proposals for shaping new furniture, initiating the development of advanced mobile technologies with innovative materials, forming style furniture, a new era of harmony.
Rationalistic XX century along with the functionality and the need for industrial printing furniture made and demand and even compact portability, which is reflected in the phrase "disappears furniture because it is not furniture, as a subject, and its functions. Everyday people XX century rapidly filled with many different things, and appealing to them is the possibility of combining the functions, allowing dispose of rarely used things and passing them as objects used continuously, increasing the value of furniture items. This trend is clearly shown in the world experimental furniture design, has little visible in domestic practice. As a permanent replacement could catch up with the world level. The domestic furniture industry, so little related to the experimental design that ignores, in fact, a staff designer with the ability to work at the world level, is likely to embark on "forever backward." Want to invest in design.
The market is now filled with furniture and objects headsets, suggesting upgrading the living environment in the image of the XIX century bourgeois home. It may take a long time until the problem is widespread understanding of this discrepancy routine household culture with a tradition of XIX century modern dynamic and the coming information age. However, there is reason to believe that the range of people who can immediately step in a new era of consumer culture can be quite large, if the practice of furniture-design and production-will offer a dizayn-produkt based on projects and programmes that reflect the realities of the coming time.
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