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Ремонт комнат    Косметический ремонт Repair rooms Refurbishing


Косметический ремонт своими руками Refurbishing of-concept largely suspended because of the complexity and labor work to be performed, depending on the design of the building, the original quality of construction and finishing work, as well as time and conditions of the building in general and specific facilities, in particular. One has to mention that the alignment of the walls and ceilings to bring them into line with European requirements and standards go well beyond cosmetic repairs, but because of the proposed article does not address. Similarly, cosmetic repairs to the kitchen, bathrooms, toilets, etc., usually involves attracting (plumbers, electricians, tilers) and the use of specialized materials (moisture, heat). Most of this work can be done on its own, but this is a topic for a separate article.

Simple maintenance work, which is described, can be described as the restoration of the residential and office premises without work for the replacement of finishing. The series includes perekleyku wallpaper, repainting ceilings, paint the windows, doors, skirtings and SB2, and the parquet floors and polishing their lacquer coating. Re-flooring process is complex and time consuming, requiring professional performers and the use of specialized equipment. The parquet work better entrusted to the specialist-any performances to cost savings, could pose even more expensive. At the same time, all other operations of the program simple fix, if desired, the minimum time and skills can be implemented independently. The best results are achieved only when used techniques and the application of proven materials (unfortunately, not always the cheapest), we suggest that in the process of carrying out the recommendations of a special coating Brigades (BSP) of ARD, have been directly involved in writing this article.

Setting up

In the first place relieved of furniture (if possible). The remaining furniture grouped in the center of the room and carefully harbour film. In any case, you should be free to approach the wall on the perimeter and the ability to carry out the entire ceiling space.

If replacement of floor covering is planned, it should be protected from dirt and possible mechanical failures. Parquet, laminate flooring or necessarily close orgalita sheets or cardboard packaging (clean and dry), which are laid on top of a thick plastic sheeting (overlap neighbouring polotnisch at least 10 cm). In order to improve the protective properties of the joints polotnisch recommended prokleit film adhesive tape (scotch). Coverage based on polyvinyl chloride (PVC), often incorrectly called linoleum, easily laundered most of the pollution, and to protect them enough zastelit floor thick plastic sheets. In conducting the largest number of mud formed at the perimeter of the premises. The protective film desirable Stick scotch and skirtings. Board removed only if they are replaced, the replacement of floor covering, or Kotel parquet. If perekrashivaniya board is not required to protect their paint tape. Paint-tape special adhesive tapes on paper, which after work easily (unlike tape) is removed from the protected surface. Decorative frame outlets and switches off, and "from a" paint zakleivayut tape. Naturally, all the electrical connections needed to be disconnected.

Dismantling the old coatings

The walls and ceiling space begins with the dismantling of (removal) of the coating. Currently, the most common type of roof coatings is vodno-dispersionnaya paint. In old houses built ceilings otdelyvali lime whitewash. Much less commonly ceilings, painted with oil or alkyd enamel. Vodno-dispersionnaya enamel paint and not water soluble, so wash off the surface of the ceiling is almost impossible. A posting on steel spatula otslaivayuschiesya sites expand coverage and cracked corner of the same spatula. Enamel desirable process ends paper texture to enhance and improve the adhesion of running again sectors. Izvestkovaya whitewash must drain to the underlying layer of filler. This simple, but quite difficult operation on the depth of which is a new coating adhesion to the ground (residues are whitewash separation layer, significantly reduces the adhesion of coatings applied again, which leads to the formation of bubbles). A layer of whitewash, the thickness of which can be several millimeters onto water through the paint roller and removed steel spatula. Sometimes remove whitewash in one fails; In the case of repeat many times. Whitewashing residues washed from the ceiling wet sponges.

Technology dismantling of the old wallpaper is not fundamentally different from the disposal of Fisheries : otslaivayuschiesya fragments of wallpaper obdirayutsya "dry" areas, Sticky firmly to the wall, razmachivayutsya water and filling removed. In older homes often pasted wallpaper in several layers, and the actual walls (to equalize the surface), it was okleivat newspapers (repair her apartment, he read with great interest the article half a century ago). In such cases, remains the only patient, continuing to consistently macerate and remove wallpaper layer by layer. Some modern wallpaper (like "triplex") is easily removed from the wall, leaving it to reverse a thin surface layer of paper. If the wall is not even needed, it should not be removed layer, as well kleyatsya new wallpaper on it.

Old paint cover doors and windows SB2 removed only if it cracks and detached. In most of this "disease" are windows, the restoration of which, of course, is the most labour-intensive operations. Nevertheless, the total removal otslaivayuschegosya coverage in this case should be mandatory, because local repair damages with filler and then perekrashivaniya likely will not produce positive results : after a few months of the frame once more into disrepair. There are two methods for removing oil (alkyd) enamel : chemical and thermal. The first layer of paint razmyagchaetsya through special chemical compounds, known as "washing", and the filling is removed or scraper various forms, which can be manufactured from local materials, or buy in the store building tools. Fuel-dedicated mixture of solvents and (or) alkalis with thickener to prevent rapid drying of education and vertical streaks on the surface. OFF costly, and work with them took quite a long time. More productive is the thermal method, involving softening paint under high temperature, which is the jet of hot air generated by the special hair. Paint razmyagchaetsya on small sections and removed by the scraper. Unfortunately, this is a hair dryer is expensive because of a professional building tool (dryer Hair styling is not suitable, but not different in principle act). Note that the restoration of the full board remove old paint coatings and subsequent elimination of the defects using filler is likely to be uneconomical.

The surface finish by finishing

After the dismantling of the old coating must be removed from the walls and ceiling. To facilitate entry of repair material (filler) in the cracks to expand their (expansion), damaged places clear of holding little pieces, and otsloivshiesya (bubnyaschie ") plots to remove the plaster layer. The resulting surface to be processed in a primer for aesthetic (Tissue moisture) basis.

Primer-aqueous solutions of polymers containing long chain polymer that can penetrate deep into the porous structure of concrete or plaster and secured within it, much uprochnyaya surface layer basis and excluding dust, which in turn provides the maximum level of adhesion repair material compositions with reason.

After drying primer deep holes and places where trowel layer otvalilsya, zadelyvayutsya cement trowel mortar. In an extreme case (to speed up the process) is alabaster or trowel mortar to gypsum based type Rotband (TIGI Knauf). Typically, this is done through a rectangular gladilki stainless steel, an instrument highly convenient and universal. The sealing of deep cracks in the concrete and masonry construction can be encouraged quick repair fillers on the basis of cement.

Repaired gruntuyutsya sites, and surface finally equalized fillers such as "Vetonit CD or Vetonit LR (Optirok). In this operation removes minor irregularities grounds and filled small cracks. Please note that the thickness of the filler should not exceed 2 mm; Large thickness is causing several layers, with each layer is completely dry after the previous layer. Severe cracks in the ceiling optional prokleit stripes trowel steklosetki size unit 2x2 mm. Applications for this purpose tape "serpyanka" of the non-woven material does not rule out re-surface cracks in the ceiling. Technology sticking tape is as follows : in the upper surface layer caused filler, steklosetka passed in stock and pritiraetsya filling. Surplus filler, vydavivshiesya through the cell grid, filling removed and returned to the tank for reuse. Do shpaklevat walls and ceilings completely, or you can simply format selected? Where walls firm wallpaper dark colors, thick sculpted wallpaper or wallpaper under-painting shpaklevat entire surface is not necessary. Through subtle bright wallpaper, nezashpaklevannye stations will be handling an black spotted : the wall shpaklyuyut completely. The ceiling is covered with paint vodno-emulsionnoy fully shpaklevat not (quite simply fillers damaged sites), but it should be borne in mind that Bill layer paint finish on zashpaklevannyh and nezashpaklevannyh sites can vary greatly, most notably in the rolling coverage. Problems often arise when material dye surfaces covered with paint : Some vodno-emulsionnye bad place to paint enamel. Therefore, it would be advisable in all cases all but a thin upper surface (at sdir ") layer of filler. Dry thoroughly processed fillers fine grit abrasive paper or mesh. The abrasive grid provides the best result.

Methods for preventing recurrence mapping

The likelihood of cracking depends largely on the design of the ceiling. Ceiling floors educated seamless concrete slabs are generally not susceptible to fracturing. If the ceiling is the intersection of concrete slabs, cracks in the ground very likely. The most serious situation is in the homes of old buildings with wooden floor (often with insufficient stiffness), in which the ceilings are covered with a layer of plaster. Tilt mapping and ceilings of plasterboard, which sooner or later treskayutsya expansion joints in sheet, as a qualitatively these joints is not zadelyvalis. Experience shows that the likelihood of re-emergence of even carefully sealed ceiling cracks very high. To combat this unfortunate phenomenon can recommend steklovoloknistyh ceiling wallpaper, known as the "VIP". VIP-roll non-woven fabrics of glass with thickness 1.5-2.0 mm and having a relatively loose structure. Much thickness and loose structure stiff does not go cracks formed on the surface of the ceiling.

Some stiff sheets glued to the back of wallpaper glue. The surface of the ceiling, prepared as described above (embedded defects, cracks steklosetkoy Azoulay, zashpaklevany and processed wire paper), gruntuetsya glue diluted with clean water at 20-30%. After drying of coatings applied to the ceiling roller adhesive layer normal concentration, stiff sheets glued back and pritirayutsya stiff brush. With stiff, and indeed all the material containing glass, it is necessary to use rubber gloves. Note that the stiff finish staining completely eliminates the emission of dust and glass makes use Covering absolutely harmless to health. It is important to choose the right glue. There have been instances where the glue, they were complete with stiff, did not provide enough resistance connections that led to blisters, wrinkles and yellow spots in the finish layer of paint. Practical experience with stiff to recommend sticking to its glue QUELYD "Special packaging, the highest and most importantly, consistent quality.

Get ideal polotnisch stiff joints almost impossible, so they must be zashpaklevat. This is done after padding entire surface vodno-dispersionnoy ceiling paint, divorced clean water for 10-30%. The exact ratio of paint and water point, because different brands of paint very different density. After drying primer joints and defects in the surface shpaklyuyutsya "Vetonitom CD or Vetonitom LR, zashpaklevannye stations teeth fixed fine paper, and finally painted ceiling vodno-emulsionnoy paint. In older houses with wooden bracing stiff even use may not be enough. In these cases the complete covering of the roof to trowel steklosetkoy unit 2x2 mm. Grid shpaklyuetsya, tooth, gruntuetsya divorced wallpaper and glue to okleivaetsya stiff, as described above. This "layered cake" provides the greatest degree of protection from entering surface cracks in the ceiling. The detailed application steklotkanevoy trowel grid can be read in "TS" 1 / 2001.

The colouring ceiling

Finish painting the ceiling is Paint roller (preferably new) with a medium-length cloth. Foam rollers and the rollers used for spraying primer, use is not recommended. Significantly accelerates and facilitates the work of a special plastic bath paint, allowing genital surplus paint and spread it across the roller surface. To facilitate the process of cleaning bath can be vystelit piece of plastic sheeting, which lays down on the edge of the circumference of the ball adhesive tape (scotch). After the film was released, and along with the paint, and bath are blank. Currently, the market for construction goods extensive stamps vodno-dispersionnyh paint. Objectively assess the quality of paint is only through trial vykraski. Magnificent proved relatively inexpensive but high-quality acrylic paint vodno-dispersionnaya "VDA-V (Moscow factory SKIM). The ceiling gruntuetsya divorced vodno-dispersionnoy paint. This will identify the defects are almost invisible to zashpaklevannoy but unpainted surfaces. After shpaklevaniya and grinding of defective ceiling painted divorced paint. Paint is defined by its properties, especially ukryvistostyu (comprehensive information on the properties of paint in "TS" 1 / 2001). It should be borne in mind that at the surface, finished stiff, paint consumption is rising by 20-30%, due ryhlostyu this material.

Наклеивание обоев

После завершения процесса окрашивания потолка можно приступать к поклейке обоев. Для наклеивания обоев используются специализированные клеевые составы. Обойный клей, наряду с высокими клеящими свойствами, должен обладать определенным уровнем влагостойкости, эффективно противостоять развитию грибков и плесени (фунгицидные свойства), не оставлять пятен на обоях и, наконец, легко размешиваться и не образовывать комков. К сожалению, не все марки клеев обеспечивают одинаково хорошие результаты. Профессиональные отделочники рекомендуют для всех видов бумажных обоев клей QUELYD "Экспресс" (бело-зеленая упаковка), а для виниловых, текстильных и обоев под покраску — уже упоминавшийся QUELYD "Специальный виниловый" (бело-фиолетовая упаковка).

Приготовление клея (в соответствии с инструкцией) обычно не вызывает затруднений. Чтобы исключить образование комков, воду в емкости (ведре) необходимо "раскрутить" палочкой до образования стабильной воронки, в которую тонкой струйкой высыпается содержимое упаковки. Жидкость в ведре нужно непрерывно перемешивать до полного растворения клея. Перед наклеиванием обоев вся поверхность стен грунтуется клеем, разбавленным чистой водой на 20-30%. В подавляющем большинстве случаев клей наносится на обратную сторону обоев, но некоторые виды обоев (например, флизелиновые) предусматривают нанесение клея непосредственно на стену, что обязательно указывается в инструкции по применению.

До начала работы на стене (при помощи отвеса) отбивается вертикальная линия, служащая ориентиром при наклеивании первого полотнища. Современные обои клеятся только встык, поэтому последовательность монтажа полотен (от окна к двери или от двери к окну) никакого значения не имеет. Обои нарезаются на куски с некоторым припуском (50-70 мм) по длине. В процессе выполнения этой операции необходимо учитывать раппорт (периодичность повторения) узора, наличие которого требует тщательного подбора соседних полотнищ по высоте для совпадения рисунка. Некоторые виды обоев (однотонные, обои под покраску без упорядоченной фактуры и т.п.) не имеют раппорта узора, что практически полностью исключает образование отходов и существенно ускоряет работу с ними.

Обратная сторона обоев покрывается клеем (при помощи малярного валика), куски складываются пополам (клеем внутрь) и выдерживаются в таком состоянии в течение времени, указанного на упаковке (обычно 3-7 мин). Необязательно выдерживать это время с точностью до секунды, но и сильно "передерживать" также не желательно. В первую очередь это касается дешевых бумажных обоев, которые могут разбухнуть до такой степени, что начнут расползаться в руках. Пропитавшиеся клеем обои накладываются на стену, морщины и пузыри разглаживаются жесткой щеткой. Использовать для этой цели тряпку не рекомендуется, т.к. на некоторых видах обоев — чаще всего бумажных — краска может размазаться. Наклеивая бумажные обои, нужно внимательно следить за тем, чтобы клей не выдавливался из стыков. С поверхности виниловых обоев клей легко удаляется влажной тряпкой, они практически не красятся, поэтому работать с ними удобнее. Поскольку куски нарезаются с запасом по длине, после наклеивания под потолком и у плинтуса образуется избыток материала. Этот избыток срезается острым ножом по металлической линейке. Тупой нож сминает и рвет бумагу, поэтому менять лезвие следует достаточно часто.

Нижний край наклеенного полотнища обрезается с таким расчетом, чтобы он немного (4-6 мм) загибался на горизонтальную полку плинтуса. Достаточно часто возникают проблемы с наклеиванием бордюра на поверхность виниловых обоев. Даже применение специализированных бордюрных клеев не обеспечивает приемлемого результата: через небольшой промежуток времени бордюр начинает отклеиваться, а иногда просто отваливается. Только наклеивание бордюрной ленты непосредственно на поверхность стены гарантирует многолетнюю службу обоев с этим декоративным элементом.

Технология наклеивания бордюра выглядит следующим образом. По всему периметру комнаты на нужной высоте отбивается горизонтальная линия. После этого наклеивают верхнюю (над бордюром) часть обоев, нижняя кромка которых обрезается по нанесенной линии с помощью острого ножа и металлической линейки. Бордюр, предварительно пропитанный клеем, наклеивается встык к кромке обоев, причем его нижний край (15-20 мм) к стене не прижимается. Полотнища обоев нижнего ряда заводятся под бордюр и обрезаются по его нижнему краю. Отрезанную полоску удаляют, после чего бордюр окончательно приклеивают к стене. Эта работа требует большого внимания и аккуратности, но обеспечивает получение идеального (и долговечного) соединения бордюрной ленты с обоями. Наклеивание бумажного бордюра поверх бумажных обоев никаких затруднений, как правило, не вызывает, но результат получается хуже. В этом случае также рекомендуется придерживаться технологии, приведенной выше.

Последний совет: в процессе наклеивания обоев и до их полного высыхания необходимо исключить всякую возможность возникновения сквозняков. Сквозняки вызывают неравномерное высыхание обоев и, как следствие, их неравномерную усадку, что может привести к расползанию стыков, некачественному приклеиванию полотнищ, а в тяжелых случаях — к нарушению целостности обоев.


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