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Ремонт пола    Устройство стяжки: технология Repair floor machine seals : Technology

The seals : technology, control, acceptance

My experience tells me that nowhere builders do not allow the number of marriage, both in the device seals. The reason is the (usually) basic incompetence when builders do not know (or do not care about) to the intricacies of technology devices seals. And, yet, plate-one of the major repairs. It can be said that she is in a very real sense, fundamentally.

This article is intended to tell the customer : as a monitor of the device seals to avoid marriage and (alas) fraud by the builders.

For this I had to describe this entire process (although I have tried to do so without unnecessary details). To control-need to know. However, if the technology is a very interesting, you can just move to the description of No. 8-Hand works.

It goes without saying that the plate must be horizontal and flat.

Operation No. 1. The horizontal.

To achieve this it is necessary to identify zero. If workers do not have lasers that do it best water level (level). Linear, or rack-level carpentry, it is not relevant. Zero must be "recaptured" on all facilities, on an arbitrary height (the most convenient height, about 1,2-1,5 hours of floor). The technology is simple : First, in no place is the first stamp. Then it in the water level is transferred to other segments of the wall and other walls in other rooms (with a laser device that is even simpler). As a result, we receive many markers located strictly on the same level, on the horizon (rather than on the existing floor). Individual marks connected by a continuous horizontal line. This line and is zero - and will be used in the future to determine the horizontal plane, at all crucial stages of the work. Zero must be accurate, and it is better to check personally.

Operation No. 2. The maximum height of the existing floor, and height differential.

What you will floors?

Уровень This should be followed to correctly choose the level of seals, as the top of the existing floor, and calculate the rate of solution-at an average thickness of seals.

To perform this operation, measure the distance from zero, to the existing field offices in different locations (such measurements, the more the better). In each measure, on the wall, chalk, the value recorded. The little importance to be listed on the highest point of the current violence. Highest-at the lowest. The difference of these values will speak on the level of differential heights of the existing floor.

Assume that the minimum value will be equal to 1.22 m and maximum-1, 27 hours In this case, the final height of 0.05 m, or 5 cm.

Minimum thickness of the seals polimertsementa (cement mortar with the addition of the plasticizer) would be 30 mm. If the layer is thinner - plate rastreskaetsya and scattered. The plate kept under "zero" categorically not allowed!

An exception to this rule-alignment floor special trains (so-called "rovnitelyami samovyravnivayuschimisya" or "mixture"). The minimum and maximum thickness of this case is a producer for each stock.

Operation No. 3. Calculation turns Heights in the different devices seals.

Перепад If your room is planned to use several flooring, it is imperative that their outside parties were at the same level (floors were transients and steps at the interface between different coatings). As different surface with different thickness, it is necessary to plan the plate at different levels, so that the elevation seals offset various coating thickness.

Assume that your home will be two floor covering : parquet and tiles.

For laying parquet, a so-called multilayer coating - "cake". It consists of : himself parquet, plywood, glue and paste. Calculation of the thickness of the cake might look like this :

2 mm (adhesive paste) + 12 mm (plywood) + 1 mm (Hotel glue) + 16 mm (parquet) = total of 31 mm. - 1 mm at Kotel parquet = 30 mm.

"floor" for ceramic tile thinner :

6 mm (season glue) + 10 mm (tiles) = 16 mm.

Thus, at the intersection of parquet and tiles, dual seals should be :

30-16 = 14 mm.

This theory. In fact, a little better increase dual-for a couple of millimetres. Thickness parquet "pie" is always fixed, there is nothing to add or subtract. A wall of floor tiling always a little iron-by the thickness of adhesive layer. The best left margin of 2 mm. - on whether the Hotel "cake" will be slightly higher.

A few words of a pressure device seals.

Сухая смесь Normally, builders buy for this purpose finished tsementno-peschanuyu dry mixture, packed in bags. Sometimes one even more add a cement and various plasticizers. Ask-a dry mixture of what, specifically, the producers are going to use your building. If randomly, which will meet in the market is that is not good enough. Dry cement mixture is very different in quality and price. Number of marriage simply shocking! In addition, different types of powders for different work. The estimate you can provide good mixture of 90-120 rubles per bag, and pour plate Jitney material for 70-75 roubles. In view of the plate Square 75-80 m2 up to 100 bags of dry mixture, the "savings" is produced good - just pay shipping. Only why not save you, and you?

Note : The normal color of dry cement mixture - chisto-sery. Mixture should not be yellow, brown, white or red. This happens when too much content in the mixture of sand, or if used in the preparation of a mixture of poor-quality sand, interspersed with clay.

The quality dry mixture do not need to add cement is the only worsen its properties. Also not recommended for special plasticizers PVA glue, perhaps cracking seals after drying. All plasticizers adding strictly speaking, these additives producers.

Operation No. 4. Prepare the surface.

The device seals needed to prepare the base. The surface of the floor and podmetaetsya carefully examined.

Sometimes builders produce so-called "zheleznenie" floor-promazyvayut cement floors "milk" - clean liquid cement. The device seals of the film layer should be removed because it is poor adhesion (adhesion) to the foundation.

Reference is to be lasting, not detached and obespylennym. All detached cleared, large cracks bilingual thick mortared (preferably by BezUsadochnogo Cement-BUTS).

Dust is removed (ideally) "special construction" vacuum if no surface-podmetaetsya carefully. More obespylivanie a primer. Ideal for this purpose is "Betokontakt" authorizing rough surface and creating excellent adhesion between the substrate and seals. While "Betokontakt" quite possible to use roads and other soils.

The walls and partitions, which will make contact plate, have temporarily gidroizolirovat. For this to them, underpasses stuck to the tape of ruberoida so that its top edge was 10-15 cm above the filling ends.

Note : Some builders recommend customers continuous sealing device floor, in all premises. This is absolutely wrong! First, a waterproofing seals between the ground and interlayer, which prevent adhesion. This would reduce the strength of seals. Secondly, if leaks from the top neighbors, the water is in your house, fill "pool" of waterproofing. This can be interpreted as dissent on the bottom neighbours, but hardly, making repairs, you want it so.

However, since shading seals is the fact that the field is sufficiently large quantities of water that does not disturb neighbors bottom, should inspect the foundation for a tunnel, cracks and gaps (especially in the field pairing slabs of wall and floor). If there should be any BUTsem putty.

Operation No. 5. Turning lighthouses.

The "beacon" we will call rails, which are aligned plane seals. The correctness of the installation directly depends-how will your flat plate.

For lighthouses builders use (usually) metal tubes or profiles. A key requirement for a lighthouse-to provide sufficient stiffness is not progibalsya and can be firmly attached to the place.

Ways of lighthouses all his : someone puts them at the "hump" of the dense solution, someone attaches to the base of controlled screws. The opportunity here is fine adjustment of the height and rigid fixation.

Lighthouses are set parallel, so that the distance between beacons allow operet two parallel ends reyki-pravila lighthouse, which will be levelling solution.

Straighten lighthouses are using rack-level as to the length of each lighthouse, and all lights together.

In places where the plate will be dual-level set of plywood formwork, which gives solution moving from one zone to another.

Operation No. 6. Making liquor and shading.

Заливка It is now virtually no building is not the solution hand-portable concrete mixers were quite widespread. The quality of the solution, ready to cement mixer tend to be higher-as mechanization process allows for better mixing of.

To facilitate the work of levelling seals, builders sometimes increase the amount of water in the solution. It can not be done because the result will be loss of strength seals. To increase the plasticity of the solution and facilitate the razing special additives (eg ESKODE-P80), which lead to good plasticity, with a small amount of water.

Strictly speaking, the normal water content of cement test (density solution) is defined by special (very simple) devices. In practice, builders do so "at the eye" and, if sufficient experience and good practice is not wrong. The eye solution should be thick consistency test-not to be a sponge, rassypchatym slightly fluid on a flat surface, but not rastekatsya.

Cooked solution should be used within 1 to 1.5 hours. If the solution is used for the day, then left at night, Kosachev sheeting and adding water (as sometimes there are some builders) can.

Slab seals in each room (or per plane) should be done at once. It filled half the room today and half tomorrow. This will be permitted only in separate areas, or variations of seals. The seals between the planes, filled at different times or with different levels, better leave dempferny seam width see 1-2

Note : When filling seals, often encouraged to "pierce" Fresh liquid solution thin metal rod. This is to avoid the air cavities inside a cup. Sometimes when filling solution in the thickness of cement dough formed air "lenses" and the gravity and viscosity solution prevents their own way to the surface. Piercing can solve this problem.

Operation No. 7. Caring for seals.

The failure of this operation is the main reason for marriage, allowed builders and finding seals. Although nothing difficult it is.

To care for the seals, just give it enough moisture within 7 to 10 days. (R 3.04.01-87 § 4.8). The fact is that 90% of cement gaining strength within 24-28 days after the preparation solution. For the chemical processes that occur while in the solution, a water solution must zastyvat rather than drying. Natural drying seals lead to a solution fails zastynut. Film Download "permitted" only after the necessary strength will be achieved, otherwise it necessarily rastreskaetsya.

To prevent premature drying of seals, to begin with, have 2-3 times a day moderately wet it with water. After two or three days, after filling seals be learned beacons, the remaining process of deepening their ground and rename them with fresh water. The plate must once again abundantly wet and lay a plastic sheet for 2 weeks. If for some reason do not wish to, it should continue to uniformly wet plate 2-3 times a day.

One must not jump is not in any way! The "acceleration" of the process can be quite placheven-plate to completely redo.

Operation No. 8. Collection work.

Now, how to measure success.

The first phase of visual inspection. Ideally plate should be smooth, uniform gray. The "sponge" undesirable shine-it shows excessive "fat" solution (larger quantities of cement). However, under the rules of care for the seals should not have fatal consequences. No cracks in the plate should not be the case.

The second stage is turned evenness. Rovnost seals checked a two reykoy-pravilom. Rule one has to apply to the surface seals in several places, directing him in different directions. Norms (by Russian standards for quality) will be considered, if the gap between the rule and seals anywhere less than four mm. (R 3.04.01-87 table. 25).

Phase - gradient surface to check the horizon, which is checked every level. The allowable limit is 0.2% but not more than 50 mm. (R 3.04.01-87 table. 25). That is, at the length of 4 metre space, tolerance ends of the horizontal must not exceed :

(4 m = 4000 mm)
4000 / 100 * 0.2 = 8 mm.

Fourth stage-prostukivanie. You must take a wooden bar and its end prostuchat entire surface seals. Sound of strikes should be the same throughout the area seals, "solid", "ding-dong". If the ground sounds "blank", "vacuum", which means there are seals detached from the base, which is unacceptable. Builders say about this plate, that it "buhtit".

Help : According to the Russian construction standards, technology and quality of the device seals regulates 3.04.01-87 SNiP. European standards for the same work defines the German DIN 18560. Do I have to say that these few rules are different and, from the perspective of the customer, the comparison will be to the detriment of Russian SNiP? So if builders pledge to "European-you", it is logical to ask them to specify in the contract that the quality of work must meet the European standard DIN, not Russian SNiP.


If you find a marriage, I recommend you immediately call an expert. To determine the magnitude of the disaster and ways to remedy it requires professional expertise. And talk with brakodelami better professional. Of course, that the expert is paid by the perpetrators of marriage.

If you want to understand the situation can advise you of the following :

Any further action must be documented.

Breaches of quality must be immediately recorded on paper (preferably photograph). If builders refuse to sign a bilateral act-woman witnesses and aktiruyte marriage itself.

The uneven surface seals or unacceptable slope-oblige builders, at their expense, to remove the marriage. The best use of an extra, which is not thin (because you do not need to increase the thickness of seals because of someone else's mistake). Such a road, but it (agree) is not your problem. The application requires a special emphasis on the technology and skill builders. If your builders are you doubt this - Get specialists, and their work paid by builders who have remarried.

If cracks in the plate - "expand" cracks progruntovat and their BUTsem putty. While many cracks plate to be completely removed. A great deal depends on the nature of cracks, better still invite expert.

If cavities in HVAC (defined prostukivaniem) - lift otsloivshiesya sites progruntovat and re-paint. While there may be a total withdrawal seals - without inspection is not defined.

Надеюсь, что мои советы окажутся для Вас полезными и помогут Вам избежать неприятностей, потери времени, денег и испорченных нервов.

Автор статьи: Юрий Демин