Search :

Site pro-remont
Ремонт потолка    Потолок: виды отделки Repair ceiling ceiling : Types finishing

Ceiling : Types finishing

Потолок The ceiling is a very important element of interior. His quality finishing attached housing additional comfort and elegance, and high reflecting the ability of the ceiling (not necessarily white) can substantially save on electricity spent on lighting facilities. Not to mention the fact that modern design options to deal with a whole set of problems, previously classified as intractable. Kind ceiling, its geometric shape, color surface, the material from which it is implemented, a significant impact on human health, his emotional state.

The ceiling of the lower-surface floors. It used various finishing materials. This may be wood and metal, natural stone and mirrors, cotton and plastic plates, paint, fabric, wallpaper and much more. Ceilings can be painted, wood, anchor, binder, suspended and combined.

Let us begin, but not from simple to complex and from traditional to modern.

Gluing ceilings

Traditional most Russians long as three finishing ceilings : wash, and painting and wall ceiling wallpaper. If the ceiling already had levelled, there was no difficulty with these works, with some experience should not arise. Of course, the work of these very demanding, and the result is not a surprise to friends and acquaintances. That is why in recent times, an increasing number of people to repair their home be denied from finishing techniques. Instead of whitewash, painting and wallpaper ceilings are increasingly using various contemporary materials, which can be divided into two broad categories : ceilings and glue.

What kind of ceiling finish you prefer?

Closest to the usual ways of processing ceilings are resistant ceilings. Like already mentioned traditional finishing options, they demand relative evenness ceiling, but to a much lesser extent.

Material for finishing in the case of a square or rectangular panel of extruded polystyrene foam or, as it often is called Styrofoam. The most common size of ceiling tiles - 500x500 mm. The surface of square tiles can be smooth or visible, simulated stucco or wood carving. These tiles can be painted in any color water-paint. Also on sale are the options tiles with laminated face covered by the polymer-film transparent or simulated wood, gunny, metallic or stone. The beauty of these tiles in the wet to care. They can be soft sponge to wash with warm water and soap. Just to be flooded with water. These tiles are great for offices, where the air is polluted, especially for kitchens. But uncoated, wipe clean, dry cloth or vacuum cleaner with a soft head.

Stiroporovaya tiles from the ceiling just stuck with glue can be virtually any surface : concrete, cement, bricks, plasterboard and wood stoves. The bonding can be used as special adhesives for stiroporovoy tiles, and polivinilatsetatny (PVA) liquid glue and nails. Generally, the material is very convenient to work, as it almost nevesom, Hanging easy to cut with a knife, and his label does not require any special equipment and skills, and can easily be implemented independently. Most of the sticker ceiling slabs stiroporovyh recommend pre-cleaned surface of the ceiling and zagruntovat. For substrates can be used divorced water polivinilatsetatny glue. Although, in most cases, not necessarily. In principle, stiroporovye tiles can be installed directly on the old whitewash, only to have their labels removed and slaboprilegayuschie otsloivshiesya stations. The advantage of this material is that it is easy to hide small irregularities, which, if whitewash or colour will be apparent. If the label bars suddenly discovered that the ceiling is more uneven than expected and tiles match is difficult, however, to combine them at the time of bonding glue, use ordinary tailoring pins.

To stiroporovyh decorated with a tile roof complete the form and to close inevitably remaining ceiling slabs and wall cracks, use ceiling cappings. Like slabs, they can be made of styrofoam, but there are made of polyurethane foam. Classic or modern painting, white, in the tone of wood or color-ceiling cornices are optically modified proportions facilities emphasize its border crossings or reconcile. The mouldings not only improves the overall appearance of the ceiling, but also facilitates bonding tiles on the edges of the ceiling. Generally, various ceiling boards, cornices, quirk, sockets and other "stucco" of modern polymer materials provide an ideal opportunity to finalize the space and make it personal coloring. With seemingly tooth similarities with the road and heavy plaster or stucco alebastrovoy, it is virtually weightless and easily mounted on the walls and ceiling. However, it is worth considering that polystyrene foam and polyurethane foam afraid of bright sunshine, under the influence of ultraviolet radiation and eventually yellowish.

Gluing ceilings cheap : the cost of one square meter of installation may be 150-450 rubles. Buying ceiling plates, surround them with some, about 15% coverage, stock because tile is fragile and in the case of treatment failure easily breaks.


Ceilings delighted decorate any room. They can easily be concealed ceiling communication overhead and a smooth construction works of art, whatever form, color and construction. More diversity and refinement of these ceilings are achieved through numerous options for the lights. There is a wide range of designs Ceiling, and the choice of its type for each case is determined on the basis of all the requirements of the premises as part of the interior of acoustics, lighting, ventilation and price.

Compared with the traditional ways of finishing and adhesive version ceilings have several advantages. First of all, they do not require equalization main ceiling, as mounted at some distance from it. It excludes "wet" stage decoration, which drastically simplifies and accelerates the works. Moreover, the cavity formed between the main and auxiliary ceiling can be hidden various communication.

Mount ceilings should note that the space between him and floors must be ventilated. This is necessary to prevent condensation of the water vapour. Two methods are recommended cleaning the surface : wet or dry, depending on the type of materials used. Usually welfare specified in the manufacturer instructions.

Price ceilings for various configurations, including those elements and accessories, ranging in Russia on average from 300 to 1500 rubles. per square metre, although there are much more expensive options.

Cluster ceilings

Most have over the years received frame to fill the special panel. This type of ceiling often called raster or cassette, underscoring that the ceiling is a rather small parts of the same forms that fit into special mounting frames. These elements constitute a pressure plate glass or mineral wool with some filling (clay, starch, cellulose, etc.). As used in their manufacture substances not fenolformaldegidnye resins and asbestos. They are environmentally friendly and negoryuchi. Standard sizes range 600x100, 1200x600 and 1200x1200 mm with a thickness of 15 to 40 mm. Most often, they are odnotonno white. Bill Classic-plain, but can be slab and rough surface, "worms", points, cracks, relief and other geometric figures. The standard ornamental patterns produced a series of special panels. Among them - moisture panel to withstand humidity of 100%, antiudarnye with antimicrobial coating; Developed and widely used special acoustic ceilings, which greatly reduces noise. The types of panels are concentrated in the special materials and are significantly more expensive than conventional decorative.

The anchorages in the suspended ceiling usually consists of a bearing and interim profiles, lasers and pristennyh profiles (galteley). The ceiling can be quickly installed and, if necessary, as quickly wholly or partially dismantled.

Ceilings gear

The next type of construction-gear hanging ceilings. They are generally adding to the small square room with high humidity or aggressive enough to nodes in the plumbing and kitchen. They are light, durable, environmentally friendly, not afraid of moisture, nesgoraemy. They are distinguished and frost, so they can be used in rooms without heating in the cold season.

The key element of such a ceiling is a thin steel or aluminum plate thickness of 0.5 mm, covered with several layers of varnish hot drying. Typically, they have a width of 10 or 15 cm and a length of 4 m. Gear ceilings are very wide range of colors exterior. The traditional colors they can mimic poserebrennye, golden or chromed surface mat or be granted, with or without perforation. Ceilings with perforated tiling elements recommended for improving acoustic qualities, they stifled reverberation, and decorative painting for improving -esteticheskih an architectural space. More diversity in the appearance of the ceiling could be made to the so-called hot-thin specially profiled decorative rods vstavlyaemymi between the main plate, and various luminaries.

Installation is simple gear ceilings. It comes with decorative plates bearing the profile-uniform, which is attached to the main ceiling. The decorative panels of uniform simply "prischelkivayutsya" - inserted in the appropriate zazhimy-fiksatory. If necessary, they also can be easily removed. Ceilings gear can be installed on the cable system. In this case, the ceiling mounted special hooks that are down-regulated length lasers. The lasers have enhanced profiles and have them prischelkivayut panel.

Mirror ceilings and other options

The raster and gear Ceiling there are other options. Among those receiving the recent growing mirrored ceilings. Like a cluster Ceiling, the decorative elements are pictures of 60h60 cm and raster mounted on the metal fittings. Approximate cost of such ceilings, 900-1500 rubles per square meter. Select mirror panels and colorful layouts in the Russian market is extremely broad. Items offered as Western, and domestic producers.

Another option is suspended ceilings gypsum sheets of galvanized steel cage. Such ceilings used if necessary to ensure sufficient heat or noise. Unlike all other options hanging from the ceiling designs plasterboard after mounting calls for finishing the finish. However, there are special versions of the ceiling when the gypsum boards on the inside layer of acoustic caused him, and a face - decorative coating.

And ending with a suspended ceiling, noting that the overall weakness is that they are designed for high-altitude space. Hanging construction "to lower the ceiling of your apartment at least 15-20 cm, which is a lot. If you want suspended ceilings of the main stand at smaller distances have to fabricate their own design suspension.

Slack ceilings

A separate version of the horizontal clearance of a head-stretched ceiling. They are made of vinyl polymers art super special 0,17-0,22 mm of thickness or in the producers of pre-made in each room measurements. The car developed drawings of the individual strips PVC film Leaves vykraivaetsya accurately size space in all its features, then cut out on the perimeter treated special flexible plate (garponom), which is subsequently used in his belt. Canned polotnische handle special train, keep using interlayer gaskets, packed in several layers of insulating film and deliver customer. Mounting slack ceilings are only firmami-distribyutorami, certified to perform this type of work producer ceiling, because this type of work requires not only special equipment and materials, and professional skills.

Advantages slack ceilings should be of the highest quality available, their vlagozaschischennost, fire safety, high strength (withstand pressures of up to 100 kg per m2), ease of use (no need for special care), as well as the speed of installation and long life (approximately 15-20 years old) with guarantees of 10 years, by manufacturers to design ceiling. To this must be added a wide color range, mirror, mat, iron and semi options, the possibility of creating complex three-dimensional structures, which stretched ceiling extremely interesting for elegant design solutions. But the range of slack ceilings virtually unlimited : from apartments and offices to hotels, swimming pools and concert halls. The shortcomings slack ceilings is usually referred to as the fact that they need to be carefully nurtured away from sharp objects, as well as fairly high price. It is higher than that of all other design options ceiling, and rising to the lower ceiling space.

Now the company finishes presenting products both foreign and domestic producers, while tightening ceilings produced significantly lower prices of imported virtually the same capacity.

The mounting tension ceiling is difficult and depends on the premises and used lighting. Therefore, we will not go into detail and only set milestones easiest option. First of all, on the walls around the perimeter of the premises and strictly horizontally at the same level established profile (picture) of hard plastic or aluminum, which then hook garponom Leaves ceiling, and off to one degree angles measure space. Frame should be fixed securely, as well as an effort to pull him off the ceiling of the wall will be roughly equal to 60 kg per linear meter.

The gently unfolding Leaves ceiling, and the temperature in the room must be 40-50oS, which is specially warmed heat gun. The extremely responsible, because at this point polotnische can be easily damaged, and it should be deployed so that all its angles coincided with angled spaces.

Now it is time to install Leaves in the picture. Pre-polymer sheet has warmed, making it elastic. To get started Leaves for garponom picture on all angles and then secure the perimeter, making it flat against the frame.

Once the ceiling pile, moving to the installation of lighting fixtures, each of which has its own characteristics.

Binder ceilings

And the latest version of clearance ceilings, which it must be said, is the binder ceilings. They operated from plasterboard, decorative panels and other sheet materials. They attach to the pre-mounted in the ceiling of the base metal or wooden frame. Most materials used for ceilings can be client that provides curvilinear surface.

При устройстве такого потолка, так же как и при монтаже подвесных моделей, отсутствуют "мокрые" ручные процессы. Эти потолки в основном применяются в помещениях с небольшими (1-2 см) неровностями перекрытия и там, где отсутствуют разводки коммуникаций в пазухе потолка. Нужно учесть, что в таких потолках не могут быть установлены встроенные светильники. В отличие от всех выше перечисленных подвесных потолков, этот потолок требует последующей декоративной отделки. Особенностью подвесных потолков из гипсоволокнистых плит является также их немалый вес: масса 1 м2 потолка колеблется от 16 до 19 кг в зависимости от способа его крепления к основному потолку.

Ну а если вы умеете работать по дереву и у вас есть время, великолепный подвесной потолок, в том числе и достаточно сложного профиля, без особых затрат можно сделать из тонкой фанеры. Изогнув фанеру по своему желанию, тщательно отшлифовав ее поверхность и зашпаклевав все стыки и неровности, покрасив в нужный вам цвет и установив оригинальные светильники, можно сделать потолок не хуже натяжного. Кроме того, для изготовления своими руками оригинального подшивного потолка можно использовать и имеющиеся сейчас в продаже разнообразные стеновые панели.

Так что вариантов много, и всегда можно подобрать такой, который сделает потолок неповторимым украшением вашего жилища. Теперь несколько слов о самой процедуре отделки потолка. Способов наклейки потолочных плит бесконечное множество, и они в первую очередь зависят от желания, вкуса и особенностей помещения.

В качестве традиционного способа наклейки потолочных плит можно привести следующий. Проведите по середине потолка базовую линию, найдите геометрический центр комнаты — для этого достаточно провести две диагонали из угла в угол комнаты. После того как центр определен, можно начинать наклейку плиток. Первые две плитки наклейте так, чтобы они расположились вплотную друг к другу вдоль средней линии симметрично относительно центральной точки. Остальные плитки клеят встык с соседними, стараясь избежать смещения их относительно друг друга. Когда вы дойдете до стены, может возникнуть необходимость подрезки плиток. Этот вариант не самый экономичный, так как может потребоваться подрезка плиток со всех четырех сторон комнаты, но в результате все они располагают ся аккуратно и симметрично.

Более простым и рациональным может показаться способ, при котором наклейка потолочных плиток начинается из какого-нибудь угла комнаты, ведь при этом потребуется резать гораздо меньше плиток. Однако в этом случае нужно предварительно убедиться, что противоположные стены комнаты параллельны одна другой. Если же стены расходятся, что у нас не редкость, это может привести к неправильному рисунку наклейки и необходимости сложной подрезки плиток. Несущие элементы растровых потолков рассчитывают исходя из нагрузки от потолочных элементов порядка 8-10 кг/м2. К основанию потолка с помощью дюбелей крепятся подвесы с профилями, образующие евромодули 600x600, 1200x600 мм, в которые и помещают потолочные панели. Они могут быть уложены двумя основными способами: по Т-образным профилям или с помощью продольных пазов в потолочных панелях, в результате чего они стыкуются без щелей.

Автор статьи: кандидат химических наук А. Колотилкин