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Ремонт ванны    Керамическая плитка: выбор, покупка и укладка Repair bath Ceramic tiles : selection, purchase and installation
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Ceramic tiles : selection, purchase and installation

All about ceramic tile

Керамическая плитка Everyone knows that the tiles. This durable, non-flammable, and Hygienic and easy-to-clean material. But did you know that the pieces with a thousand-year history, continues to evolve today. Artists and designers working to "old" tiles in a totally new way : for example tiles under the floorboards, under the tufa, with other natural materials, as well as marble and mosaic tiles.

And the use of glazed tiles remains the most practical way of creating beautiful and waterproof surface.

Technical specification tiles

G/cm3 tiles depends on the porosity. The less water absorption, the more resistance, resistance to temperature variations, the strength of tiles to bend, and if the tiles glazurovana, it depends on the porosity and durability, and resistance to the patches. G/cm3 is less than 0.5% of the painted, Vodopogloschenie for wall tiles can be greater than the floor.

Cold tiles and resistant to temperature variations, as was mentioned above, depends on the absorbability, frost-resistant tile facades opt for finishing and finishing sidewalks and squares (mostly ceramic granite).

You want to place the tiles

Resistance to bending. Depends on the absorbability (porosity), and the thickness of the tiles.

Surface Hardness scale MOOSa (Mohs) checked causing scratches on the surface of tile natural minerals (hardness known). Hardness tiles can vary from 3 to 9 (10 firm is a diamond, 9-korund).

Endurance is measured in codes from I to V on a scale P.E.I. respectively tiles divided into 5 groups. Checking "to the bottom" in the floor tiles. The surface of the tile handle of a metal crumbs aluminium powders and distilled water for 4 minutes at a speed (300 rpm), thus simulates a strong depreciation.

Tiles tested for resistance to aggressive liquids, such as hydrochloric acid, potassium alkali, household chemicals. If the tiles marked "AA" - it is exposed to chemicals. A slight change, and so forth "in", "C" and "D".

There are also tests for resistance to education stains from paints, to vymyvaemost dirt.

Classification tiles

Керамическая плитка The original type clay mixture can be mixed basis :

- kaolin clay (white) are particle size less than 0,001 mm high homogeneity. Because Europe is very little data clay deposits, they are very expensive;
- montmorillonitovye (red) are clay particle size 0,001-0,01 mm.

On the composition of the original mixture depends main technical parameters of tiles : porosity and thus absorbability, restraint geometrics, Amélie dyes, etc.

By way of forming :

- pressed-powder mixture and arrange packed press under high pressure;
- extruding-paste mixture of mass squeezed through the slot. The method produces various curved forms.

Tiles made by the bonding, marked (B), extrusion ( "A").

In an icing :

- icing - on the surface of the tiles are first picture, and then layer glazing (smalty). At the heart of the special-glazing glass, providing not only a beautiful view, but also sophisticated tiles (hardness, wear resistance, water);
- neglazurovannaya tiles or no decorative pictures, or dyes added to the original mixture, thereby creating an image.

The shape and size :

- Square;
- rectangular;
Various complex.

By appointment :

- floor,
- wall,
- decorated,
- 190õ190õ190,
- facade
- special tiles for the basin.

Major types of tiles

Dvuhobzhigovaya tiles

Керамическая плитка Produced by pressing clay mixture and roast it to the continuation of glazing and then firing the second. The result is a porous, low strength characteristics tiles. Suitable only for the interior, in particular the wall surface. Has glossy or matt surface.

On the technology is such majolica (metlahskaya tiles) and tiles kottoforte (cottoforte). These tiles are made of red clay and covered by opaque glazing. Majolica used for lining the interior walls. Tiles kottoforte mainly used for domestic floors, but can be used for wall.

Terraglia-for the production of the tiles as a technology for dual firing, but is more expensive raw materials (white clay), which increases performance. Tiles is white. The surface caused figure and glazuruetsya. Terraglia used for wall indoors.

Faience (white pottery), as its name tiles also made of white clay. A double glazing technology, then glazuruetsya tiles. Used for internal finishing floors.

Odnoobzhigovaya tiles (Monokottura)

More modern technology : PRESTO clay mixture, then podsushivayut cause glaze, and then the roasting process. The tiles are high figure, which makes it possible to use it for wall, floor, and some frost-resistant species, and for outdoor activities. G/cm3 such tiles can range from 0 to 15%. For tiles used as a red and white clay. Most tiles, firing a single slip mat surface, it is denser and heavier than dvuhobzhigovaya tiles.


A mixture of high-quality materials, with the addition of colouring oxides and annealed clay. Finished weight is extruded (pushing through a form), then obzhigaetsya at 1250oS before.

So tightly structured tiles with high technical specifications. Clincker not absorb water, easy to clean and maintain, resistant to temperature, the characteristics of high resistance to mechanical loads, not exposed to aggressive chemicals.

Extruding process allows tiles complex geometric forms and apply it then, such as the construction of pools, stairs (corners, drainage, caps, connectors). The clinker is used for the lining of floor indoors and outdoors, including at industrial sites.

Tiles are usually not emaliruetsya and in the production process is shaping, drying and roasting temperatures of up to 1110oS. The result is a porous structure as traditional tiles, and the complex geometric forms (diamond, hexagon).

Characterised compression and bending resistance, low water absorption, and resistance to abrasion, high-service, the tiles exposed to aggressive chemicals.

Souza was mainly used for the settlement of internal floors.

Ceramic granite

Керамическая плитка Painted, the most advanced technology in the production of ceramic tiles. Extensive use was in the early 1980s, and, one might say, is tops in the development of ceramic tiles.

In the production of high-quality ceramic mixture of white clay, feldspar, quartz and dyes PRESTO under very great pressure, podsushivayut and then Besides at very high temperatures. The result is a osteklovanny neporisty monolith with the figure for the whole depth.

Use painted a very broad : from facing up to finishing the floores in the production workshops. Painted a very low water absorption, it can be used for cladding facades in different climatic zones. With high resistance to abrasion painted can be used in rooms with high human tide. He did not burn in the sun and resistant to aggressive media.

Currently available painted all shades and colors : from the colour of stone to simulate the surface of the skin and wood.

Choosing tiles

How to find the diversity that you need? Choosing tiles depends on the location of its use. We help you choose tiles, depending on the assumed conditions.

If you need tiles for outdoor works there, of course, you select the frost-resistant tiles. Key AI or VI, said that the tiles resistant and suitable for outdoor works, code AIII or BIII indicates that the tile is used only for domestic work.

Ceramic granite

If you choose a tile floor, you should pay attention to the group for approval (on the scale of PEI).

- Group 1 (PEI I), the least-used of private houses, such as bedrooms, bathrooms.

- Group 2 (PEI II) - spaces with little traffic, which went to the home of shoes : floors in the living rooms, bedrooms, baths, etc.

- Group 3 (PEI III), with a median of intensity, such as hallways and kitchens of private homes, hotel rooms, houses a hospital.

- Group 4 (PEI IV), a site with heavy traffic prone middle and high abrasion, and for spaces with direct contact with the street, such as stairs and halls in residential houses, bars, restaurants, offices.

- Group 5 (PEI V) zone Jeep (supermarkets, train stations, airports), as well as industry.

If the data are to be run not only at home slippers when selecting tiles must also pay attention to the surface hardness. Importantly, the smallest scratch will be seen on the shiny surface, but may not be evident at the mat.

Tiles on the floor in the entryway, including, should be easily cleaned of dirt. You can also say that the mud less noticeable on dark surfaces mixed picture.

Public Information tiles should have more such quality as antiskolzkost.

Tiles on the floor and walls of the bathroom and the kitchen must have increased resistance to aggressive media, as well as here in the tiles will increasingly affect detergent or cosmetics.

Of course, you pay attention and look. Qualitative tiles is clear size, the right angles and flat surface. If the tiles glazurirovana, pay attention to the same connotation glazed surface, the lack of streaks.

The diversity of formats tiles can always choose what you need. For example, the format 10h10sm well will be seen on the walls of the kitchen. And to lay on the floor tiles are very comfortable "with parquet, a 15h45sm or 15h60sm.

In terms of new fashion trends in the world of ceramic tiles, it was the play of textures marble or natural stone. And a "sostarennyh" surfaces as a istochennyh nature and time. Also in the fashion mix ceramic tiles with other materials (metal, glass, wood).

Tips for buying tiles

So, we do repairs in the bathroom-my wall and floor tiles, sanitary ware.

Керамическая плитка The first shopping gave us only a general idea, tiles have any. On any producers ROMs, and the figure, with different features and different prices on the course. Sum up : more questions than answers. Tiles from where and what the producer choose more expensive Spanish, Italian, French or cheaper Iranian, Turkish, Chinese? What qualities must have tiles for the bathroom? What wall tiles we come? The tiles are made of different technologies?

It struck the diversity of colors and painting : white tiles, multicolored, with a different pattern, with the figure "under the marble." And although we know in advance about our future bathroom, "escaped the eye" and the color and image, we also have no opinion.

We were pleasantly surprised that you can buy all the tiles from one collection, which includes wall, floor tiles, and frieze decoration. It goes with a collection chosen for color and style. Frieze is ornamented band, which limits the lined face either top or used to decorate a wall tile joints. Decor is a single tile with patterns. You can do one or decoration in the center of the wall, or repeated with some frequency.

The choice of colour and construction tiles to consult with a designer. For example, tile light shade increases the space visually. It will be the space depends, inter alia, on the lighting. Contamination will be less visible on the dark surface mixed picture. A fine will be less visible scratches on the surface mat. Of course, all this better accommodate advance.

And finally, we went to buy a tile with the wizard. We chose, and he answered all the questions posed. The master reviewed a selected us tiles, revised its full service to suck much 548D or nadkolotye tiles. The surface tiles must be perfectly flat and smooth.

In principle on the tiles can learn a lot by looking at icons on the packaging. For example, if there is an image foot black background-tile floor, and if a hand is the tiles on the walls. Upper on the shaded background indicates a high durability. White-tile morozoustoychiva. Plastic fire to a number 1 to 2 points to the number obzhigov tiles. If the same icon repeated twice, indicating a high level of this indicator.

Also, we bought glue for the tiles to cement a polimertsementnuyu-dry mixture. The choice of glue, of course, we chose the wizard.

And of course modern laying tile unthinkable without zatirok for stitches. Seam width can be from 2 to 20 mm, depending on the design. Floors you can choose almost any color and hue and lined face will be the kind that we want. But pointing to save it, such as cheap pointing to a cement can not be used in humid areas.

Recommendations for packing tiles

Керамическая плитка Laying tiles is the ultimate embodiment of the idea of a designer, architect, contractor, and it is hard work and some highly skilled art. Tiles placed on the many years of quality and process depends very much. Even the most expensive and beautiful tiles, bed fudged, will look awful. While simple and inexpensive tile, loose hands of experienced craftsmen, can be very beautiful. So a lot depends on the people engaged in this work. Tile is a complex, multidisciplinary and hard work, which is why the cost of skilled craftsmen is expensive.

In order to determine the number of tiles to the surface, it must take into account that :

- almost always happens is that the length is a multiple of the length of tiles, and therefore have to be cut, projections and recesses in the walls, cranes, sink in the bathroom, and so on, also need to create cutting tiles;
- a number of tiles can be otbrakovano, as well as several bars should be left for possible repairs.

Therefore, after calculating the number of tiles for the space lining add 10 more 15%.

Laying tile always includes a sequence of works look at the example of laying tile in the apartment.

Preparation for the packing

1. Purifying rise to the surface from dirt, dust and fragile elements.
In most cases, laying in a warm room after the general construction work, and to lay the surface thoroughly cleaned of dust, cement residue and other dirt.

2. Leveling the surface so that the difference of no more than 5mm.
Even two-metre wooden or metal rods determine roughness, and then through special plastering leveling the surface of the mixture, you can also use traditional tsementno-peschany solution.

3. Gruntuem base.
If in the season will be used glue, so as to prevent its absorption in the surface after drying levelling layer caused by the wash.

4. Attaching device.
The level set horizontally on the wall of a metal or wooden rod, so that it remains under the seat for the basement (lower) number of tiles, plus beads (which some attach after laying floor tiles).

5. Подготавливаем необходимое количество клея.
Начинаем подготовку клея. В настоящее время существует большой выбор уже готовых сухих полимерцементных смесей и специальных клеев для укладки плитки. Достаточно следовать инструкции на упаковке, чтобы приготовить качественный клей для плитки, но, кроме того, существуют некоторые общие правила. Количество клея должно быть таким, чтобы вы могли полностью использовать его до момента отвердевания смеси. Также нужно тщательно перемешивать смесь, которую засыпают в воду, а не наоборот. На 25 кг смеси потребуется 5,5-6 литров воды. Весь раствор перемешивают вручную или механически примерно 5 минут до получения кремообразной массы.

Если же вы хотите сэкономить, можно использовать цементно-песчаный раствор: смешивается цемент (М400 или М500) – 1 часть, песок – 3 или 4 части и разбавляется водой (примерно 0,5 частей). Также вместо воды можно использовать 3-5% водный раствор клея ПВА, такой раствор замешивают меньшими порциями, так как он быстрее схватывается.

6. Наносим клей для укладки на стену.
Приготовленный раствор наносим на стену и равномерно распределяем по ней зубчатой теркой или шпателем. В некоторых случаях возможно нанесение раствора на саму плитку.

7. Непосредственно укладка плитки
Плитки бикоттуры и монокоттуры можно увлажнить перед укладкой.
Укладку начинаем снизу. Между плитками оставляем место под шов. По углам уложенной плитки ставим специальные пластиковые крестики, для того чтобы толщина швов была одинаковой (чаще всего она составляет 2 3мм). После укладки плитку прижимаем рукой и удаляем излишки раствора, пока он не затвердел. В процессе постоянно проверяем уровнем ровность укладки.

Если необходимо разрезать плитку, можно выполнить это так: с помощью стеклореза на плитке делают надрез со стороны глазури, затем ударяют плитку обратной стороной, например, о край стола. Плитка раскалывается по надрезу. Но лучше использовать для резки специальный инструмент, особенно это касается прочной напольной плитки.

Итак, мы завершили укладку плитки, теперь нужно подождать 24 часа до полного схватывания клея.

8. Заполняем швы затирочной смесью.
Подготавливаем затирочную смесь для швов. Засыпаем смесь в емкость с водой, тщательно перемешиваем и отстаиваем 5 10 мин, после чего еще раз перемешиваем. Затем заполняем швы затиркой при помощи резинового шпателя.

Надо сказать, что швы имеют немаловажное значение. Дизайн-проект может предусматривать любые варианты толщины шва: от 0 до 20мм. Также для затирки швов можно выбрать практически любое цветовое решение. Оговоримся, что правильно затертые швы усиливают эстетический эффект от всей укладки, а в некоторых случаях смогут сгладить небольшие дефекты ее. Но кроме этого шов компенсирует микроколебания поверхности, особенно это важно, например, при укладке плитки в новых зданиях или в очень больших помещениях.

9. Очищаем поверхность плиток.
Через 25-30 минут предварительно очищаем плитку от лишнего раствора, лучше всего использовать для этого губку. Через час, окончательно, фланелевой тряпкой, очищаем поверхность.

10. Распределение плиток.
Общий принцип распределения плиток понятен всем – самые заметные места должны выглядеть очень хорошо.

Керамическая плиткаТо есть разрезанные плитки по возможности использовать в менее заметных местах. Если на полу и стене используются плитки одинакового размера, рекомендуется выравнивать швы на стене и на полу. Если стена прямоугольная – по середине вешается отвес, и ряды выравниваются по нему. На полу также посередине натягивается направляющий шнур параллельно стенам, и первый ряд выравнивается по нему.

Особенности укладки плитки в других помещениях и на улице

Облицовку керамической плиткой (особенно керамогранитом) используют также в супермаркетах и на складах, на улице, в бассейне, для облицовки каминов. Сразу оговоримся, что в первую очередь необходимо правильно выбрать плитку и специальные клеящие и затирочные смеси, подходящие для соответствующих условий эксплуатации.

Укладка плитки в больших помещениях и помещениях с большой интенсивностью движения

Стяжку следует дополнительно усилить за счет большей толщины и путем армирования специальными материалами. В очень больших помещениях необходимо использовать и расширительные швы для гашения микроколебаний. Расширительный шов должен уходить вглубь стяжки на 10 20мм. Для того, чтобы максимально избежать появления пустот между плиткой и стяжкой, рекомендуется наносить слой клея как на стяжку, так и на плитку. Затем плитка прижимается и пристукивается резиновыми молотками.

Укладка плитки на улице

В данном случае стяжка должна быть выполнена с необходимым уклоном для того, чтобы вся вода уходила за пределы облицованной поверхности. Также необходимо использовать расширительные швы, которые уходят вглубь стяжки.

Уход за плиткой

Итак, плитка уложена, конечно, вы хотите, чтобы она долго служила вам. Все что для этого нужно – соблюдать условия эксплуатации для вашего типа плитки. Например, для ухода за плитками бикоттуры или монокоттуры применяют теплый раствор воды и мягкую губку. А вот полированный керамический гранит в течение первого месяца эксплуатации промывают кислотным раствором, так как в микропоры забивается грязь. При чистке глянцевых поверхностей не следует применять абразивные средства.

Соблюдайте все эти несложные правила, и плитка долго будет радовать вам глаз.


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